What is a concussion?

A concussion is any injury to the brain in which the normal function of the brain is temporarily disturbed. Concussions are sometimes referred to as mild traumatic brain injuries (MTBI). This can occur with or without contact to the brain, especially in kids.

What are some typical causes of concussions?

Concussions are caused by impacts and or rotational forces to the head that are transmitted to the brain leading to brain or nerve fiber tissue damage. Sports in which concussions most commonly occur include football, ice hockey, gymnastics, combat sports, lacrosse, and soccer. Non-sport occurrences include motor vehicle accidents and work injuries. Concussions can occur in any sport or activity where there is impact to the head.

What are the symptoms of concussions?

Symptoms of concussion are grouped into four categories:

• Physical

• Cognitive

• Emotional

• Sleep

Physical symptoms include headache, nausea, vomiting, balance problems, dizziness, vision problems, light/noise sensitivity.

Cognitive symptoms include feeling foggy, feeling slowed down, difficulty concentrating, memory problems.

Emotional symptoms include irritability, sadness, increased emotions, nervousness

Sleep symptoms include sleeping more or less than usual, drowsiness, trouble falling or staying asleep.

What are some treatments?


• Rest initially typically includes both physical and cognitive activity.

• Suspected concussions should be evaluated by a healthcare provider.